This paper is presented in Workshop on “Peace Education and Conflict Communal in
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DEMOCRATIZATION PROCESS AND COMMUNAL CONFLICT IN MADURA
The Case of Election of Mayor (Bupati) in Sampang, Madura
For the Term of 2000-2005
Dr. A. Latief Wiyata
Trunojoyo University, Bangkalan -
3. Reaction of FKB and mass conflicts.
Since beginning, FKB criticized Fadhilah Budiono. The indications could be shown in the two cases as follows. First, the protest of NU scholars on April 11th, 2000 to the Public Office of Persecutor for the manipulation of rice for the poor and Sambas refugees done by Fadhilah Budiono. (This complaint written as the notion of the letter of Kodam V Brawijaya to the governor of
Second, the refusal of PKB’s to the speech of Fadhilah Budiono in his final report and responsibility in his term as mayor of Sampang 1995-2000. These plans were met with the act of governor and the chief military commander (Pangdam) V Brawijaya who wrote the letter to the chair of local parliament in Sampang to reconsider the candidacy of Fadhilah Budiono. Other issue about Fadhilah from scholars and PKB politicians was Fadhilah did trespassing of the scholars’ authorities. Hence, this action culturally was humiliated principle.
Two days after the election of mayor and vice mayor of Sampang, FKB began to show their frustrations to the results of election. FKB’s chairman wrote a letter to the chair of local parliament (DPRD) to reconsidered and clarified Fadhilah Budiono before he was inaugurated. This was regarding his retirement status, and his status as persecuted in the case of manipulation of rice and the status of KH Abdul Kholiq Imam vote. In the beginning FKB did not knew that his membership had been replaced by Abdul Syukur Sayuti. This was according to the governor’s letter no. 15/FKB/PKB/VII/2000, dated May 26th, 2000.
The chair of local parliament (DPRD) with the letter no. 171.1/191/442.040/2000, dated July 26th, 2000 negatively responded the FKB’s request for clarification. FKB was unsatisfied with the response, especially with the point of the right to vote for the replaced member. FKB said that the result of the election was unlawful. Then FKB wrote a letter to the ministry of Home Affair No. 16/FKB/PKB/VII/2000, dated July 26th, 2000. FKB cancelled the agreement and refused the results of the election implemented on July 22nd, 2000. (This political move was inconsistency with the statement of chair of PKB’s Branch Sampang, Fahrur Razi Farouq after the election who explained that the election was fair, honest, and democratic. He said that FKB took the results wisely. See, Radar Madura, 24 July 2000).
FKB stated the in trusty motion to the chair of DPRD in his transparency of governor’s letter for personal and political conflicts. FKB requested the Ministry of Home Affair not to issue the letter of legality for the results of the election of mayor. FPP, as well as other fractions that support Fadhilah, had a different interpretation regarding the replacement of local parliament members. FKB’s opinion was strongly opposed by other fractions’ leaders.
As the recommendation from four fractions, on July 26th, 2000, the chair of DPRD wrote a letter to the Ministry of Home Affair and East Java Governor. In the letter he asked them to issue the letter of legality of Fadhilah Budiono and Said Hidayat as mayor and vice mayor of Sampang for the term of 2000-2005.
Contrary, on August 7th, 2000, FKB wrote to the Ministry of Home Affair not to issue the legality the result of election because of the unlawful. Twenty-two members of DPRD, Sanusi and Fahrur Rozi supporters strongly stated that they cancelled the results of the election on July 22nd, 2000.
On September 4th, 2000, as the tension from the mass, the Ministry of Home Affair issued letter No. 131.35-418 for the inauguration of mayor in Sampang Fadhilah Budiono, for the term of 2000-2005. At the same date, the Ministry issued the letter No. 132.35-419 about the inauguration of vice mayor in Sampang, A. Said Hidayat for the term of 2000-2005. The letter received by Fadhilah Budiono through the office of mayor in Sampang at 08:48 P.M. It was faxed from Grand Hyatt Hotel,
The inauguration was planned on September 7th, 2000. The issued of the letter by Ministry of Home Affair ignited reaction from FKB. FKB said that the ministry implemented double standard.
FKB considered the results of the election was unlawful. Then FKB issued a legal prosecution to the election committees in
The inconsistency attitude of the governor about the inauguration caused an empty of local government leadership. Therefore, leaders of parliament and the fractions of Fadhilah Budiono supporters wrote a letter No. 131/227/442.040/2000, dated November 20th, 2000, to the Ministry of Home Affair to take over the inauguration in
Just after the election, the mass movement from both sides were on and on. The mass movements supported by FKB’s fraction based on the power of scholars and traditional students (Santri). On the other hand, Fadhilah Budiono supporters based on the power of bureaucrats: village leaders, teachers, and government’s employees. The elite political leaders from both sides were dominantly influenced that mass movement in a large numbers. On September 4th, 2000, a large numbers of people involved in the protests. They locked a number of government offices, and blocked the entering and exiting main road of the city by parking some trucks in the middle of the streets made the inter city traffics totally stop. The riots done as the protest to
It was scheduled that the inauguration of mayor and vice mayor elected would be held on September 7th, 2000. However, PKB side did not change their mind. They refused the inauguration, and even intimidated to send more people in the streets.
The city of
Around 03.00 P.M. the mass from PKB began to move toward local parliament (DPRD) office. Around 4.30 P.M. the mass started to burn down the office. On the other hand, the mass of Fadhilah Budiono supporters initially going to block PKB’s who were going toward the parliament office. Their intention was stopped by the securities personals to prevent a fatal physical direct contact from both sides. The mass concentrations were continuing until the next day (Surya, 7 September 2000).
At 07.00 P.M. Fadhilah Budiono along top leaders of Sampang left for
On Thursday, September 7th, 2000, the city of Sampang was still chaos. Luckily, the both sides finally agree to keep the city peacefully. The agreement was reached after Fadhilah Budiono announced that his inauguration would be held until the results of the meeting of Sampang’s scholars from both sides, FPP and FPB held on Sunday, September 10th, 2000 reached. Unfortunately, those meeting did not reached the results that solve the problem. Therefore the inauguration of mayor and vice-mayor of Sampang was uncertain.
To see the results of the meeting, Ministry of Home Affair and Local Autonomy returned the case of the election of mayor in Sampang to the governor of East Java, Imam Utomo (Jawa Pos, 13 September 2000). Basically, governor as well as the ministry of home affair had no a certain concept to solve the problem completely. It made Fadhilah supporters getting angry. Hence, East Java governor, Imam Utomo had the important role to handle the situation. The strategic role was not implemented optimally due to the governor’s personal and political interest in the election of mayor. This political interest made the governor acted inconsistently in this case. In one side, he agree with the valid of the election process, hence in other side he refused to inaugurate Fadhilah Budiono for any reasons.
Several efforts had been implemented to solve this case. However, the political situation was getting worse such as the decision of Public High Court in Surabaya that loses the group of FKB. That legal decision written in the letter No. 9/B/TUN/2000/PT TUN.SBY.
Regarding these legal process results, a politician from FPP said: “With the victories of election committees in the two levels of judicial courts, means that the result of the election was formally legal. Therefore, this can be used as the basis to inaugurate Fadhilah Budiono and A. Said Hidayat as mayor and vice-mayor for the next term” (Radar Madura, 14 Februari 2000).
Large riots reoccurred on Monday, February 9th, 2001. They occupied District government office of Sampang and asked the inauguration of Fadhilah. The governor refused to do so, he said that the case of Fadhilah inauguration had been submitted to President and ministry of home affair (Kompas, 23 Februari 2001). This action ignited an heavy reaction from PKB side. On Wednesday, February 21st, 2001, the city of Sampang was in real chaos. Anti Fadhilah mass asked that the office of mayor in Sampang should be cleaned from the act of occupancy. The latest would be on Thursday, February 22nd, 2001, at 07.00 A.M. The chair of police department in the territory of Madura (Kapolwil) Drs. S. Trisna and the chair of district police (Kapolres) Sampang AKBP Drs. Endaryoko, S.H. lobbied the two groups. The claims of PKB were agreed, and Fadhilah mass went home, finally the open direct physical conflicts could be avoided (Jawa Pos, 22 Februari 2001).
Secretary general of PKB, A. Muhaimin Iskandar suggested that the elite political leaders from both sides would negotiate to calm down the situation. He said that in the case of election of mayor in Sampang, President had delivered the problem to the ministry of home Affair and the governor of East Java. According to him, whatever the decision, PKB was going to obey (Jawa Pos, 22 Februari 2001).
Meanwhile, the vice-chair of National parliament for politics and security, Soetardjo Soerjaguritno said that there was commitment from the ministry of home affair to order East Java governor to inaugurate Fadhilah after he meet the famous (Jawa Pos, 3 Maret 2001). In a later development, the clue of the inauguration of Fadhilah reached after President Abdurrahman Wahid met KH Alawy Muhammad at his residency, after President visited the refugees from Sampit (Kompas, 14 Maret 2001.
The vice-chair of Local Parliament (DPRD) in Sampang, H. Moh. Sayuti urged about the inauguration of Fadhilah Budiono. He said that Ministry of Home Affair had sent telegram to the governor to proceed Fadhilah inauguration shortly. Furthermore, the chair of the local Parliament (DPRD) of Sampang was called by the governor to discuss the inauguration. Sampang community sure that the visit of President Abdurahman Wahid to the house of K.H. Alawy showed that the president urged the inauguration of Fadhilah (Radar Madura, 15 Maret 2001).
Even though, the polemic about the inauguration of Fadhilah was not done yet. Just in a week the governor had received three letters from top leaders in Jakarta with different views about this. Earlier, on March 9th, 2001, Governor received radiogram no.T.130.35/064/Otoda, classified as very soon stuff, from the directorate general of local autonomy (OTDA), Sudarsono, on behalf of Ministry of home affair and local autonomy. The full content of the radiogram was as follows. (1) Radiogram ministry of home affair and local autonomy No. 131.35/138A/PUMDA, on September 6th, 2000, regarding the delay of the inauguration of mayor and vice-mayor of Sampang elected for the term of 2000-2005 canceled; (2) shortly inaugurate mayor and the vice mayor of Sampang for the term of 2000-2005, (3) report the process to the ministry of home affair and local autonomy shortly.