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For the Term of 2000-2005
Trunojoyo University, Bangkalan - Madura
University of Jember, Jember East Java
On July 22nd, 2000, around 09:30 A.M. the election of Mayor and vice mayor for Sampang for the term of 2000-2005 was held in the local parliament (DPRD) in Sampang, Madura, in the province of East Java, Indonesia. In the election, Fadhilah Budiono and A.Said Hidayat won the election with 23 points defeated their opponents Sanusi Djamaludin and Fahrur Rozi Farouq with 22 points.
Both mayor candidates were retirements of police and former chair commander of police in the district of Sampang. On the other hand, vice mayor candidates, A. Said Hidayat was civil birocrat and Fahrur Rozi Farouq was a politian from National Awakened Party (PKB).
The couple, Fadhilah Budiono dan A. Said Hidayat were supported by Development Unity Party (PPP), Indonesian Democratic Party for Struggle (PDIP), Union Fraction of smal parties (FG). Where as the couple of Sanusi Djamaludin and Fahrur Rozi Farouq were supported by PKB. The pool from military and police fraction was split in two sides.
The victory of Fadhilah Budiono and A. Said Hidayat were not followed by their enauguration as mayor and vice mayor of Sampang. The reason was they were convicted in the manipulation of rice for the poor and Sambas refugees and unfair election. The riots done by PKB’s supporters to oppose Fadhilah Budiono victory was continue. The reaction to PKB’s supporters were also shown by Fadhilah Budiono supporters. The absent of the definitive mayor in Sampang was more than one year that badly affect the running of the local government in Sampang.
The protests were calm down after Abdurahman Wahid got impeachment and replaced by Megawati Soekarno Putri in the house of representative in special hearing (MPR). Megawati ordered to enaugurate Fadhilah Budiono and A. Said Hidayat as mayor and vice mayor of Sampang definitively. The enauguration was held on October 8th, 2001 in Grahadi hall, Office of Governor of East Java in Surabaya. Mean while the legal process toward Fadhilah Budiono was in progress.
The groupes in madurese community involved in the political conflicts and mass violations were formally diffferent party. Substantively, both PKB and PPP were afiliated under Islamic bases parties. Most of them culturally were madurese and had the same religion as moslems and the sect of sunny. Both sides were also support the mayor from the background of military/ police. Hence, in the era of New Order, military-police as government aparat always did as “enemy” for Madurese people, such as in the riots or in the tragedy of Nipah and in the 1997 election chaos.
Culturally, Madurese exposed in their aspect of discourteous or bad manners. They also had the characteristics of expressive, spontaneous, and openness.(De Jonge. 1995: 7-24; Wiyata. 2002.). In Madurese society is also strong culturally in the family, relatives, , religious instsitutions, and more importanly is in their dignity. When their dignity is humiliated, then he would implement their concept of “ango’an pote tolang etembang pote mata’, means “One rather die then live in ashame (Wiyata. 1997). These cultural aspects drove political communal conflicts in Sampang
Mass conflicts occurred in the election of mayor was very important event in the era of reformation that offers more for civil society to develop democracy. In this paper the causes that drove the conflicts were identified, including the involvement of military-police role in this conflicts. More over, this paper offers description about the implication in the case of election of mayor in Sampang in the process of democratization and the development of civil society in Indonesia that currently in the progress.
2. From Selection to Inauguration of Mayor and Vice Mayor
Since beginning, Fadhilah Budiono get the supports from most of the components in the community (91,48%), to be reelected as mayor of Sampang for the term of 2000-2005 compared his opponents in the election. Fadhilah supported by three fractions in local parliament. The three fractions were FPP, FG, and FPDI-P. The candidates of vice mayor from each fraction were as follows: Soepandi was FPP’s candidate, Hasan Abrori was FG’s candidate, and Ruslan Efendi was FPDI-P’s candidate (Radar Madura, 19 Juni 2000). Mean while military/ police fraction promoted Panji Susilo as mayor candidate and Dr. H.A. Said Hidayat, M.Si as vice mayor candidate (Radar Madura, 19 Juni 2000). For the reason of administrative, the weak of political support, and political coalition, finally the mayor and vice mayor candidates promoted were Fadhilah Budiono and A. Said Hidayat.
Meanwhile, the political support of PKB were coming from eight sub districts that support KH Drs. Hasan Abrori, M.A the chair of PKB’s fraction as mayor candidate. Unfortunately PKB leaders and scholars did not appreciate the support from the grassroots. The support for Hasan Abrori was positively received from five sub -district parties of PDI-P in Sampang. Those five branches suggested that PDI-P did coalition with PKB (Radar Madura, 24 Mei 2000). The good offer was not positively responded due to the fact that PKB have already had its own agenda. Finally, the eight branches of PDI-P in Sampang gave the support for Fadhilah Budiono as mayor candidate for Sampang (Radar Madura, 1 Juni 2000).
Due to the lack of performance party leaders, since beginning PKB planned its own candidate, it was the retirement of lieutenant colonel Abdullah. He was the former chief military territorial in Sumenep for the term of 1996-1998 and private assistant of military commander territorial (Pangdam) V Brawijaya. Promoting the candidate from army considered able to challenge Fadhilah Budiono who came from police corps (From the PKB’s politician comment, the candidacy of Abdullah and Sanusi Djamaludin by PKB, planned able to handle social problem in Sampang, especially to overcome criminal actions that considered the source of social instability in Sampang and neglect religious norms in the community. They were the gamblers, and the bull’s thieves. So far military and police unable to handle those criminal actors). As the winner party in the election, PKB promoted Fahrur Rozi as vice mayor candidate.
Once, M.A. Mukiban, the chair of military/police fraction said that they were going to support the PKB’s mayor candidate. It means that since beginning military/police fraction lean to PKB’s mayor candidate, although, eventually they did not. The process of Abdullah candidacy created PKB’s internal reactions and the negative response from community. PKB refused to promote the retirement of police colonel H. Sanusi Djamaludin who promoted by National Mandataory Party (PAN).
Until the dead line of the extension submitting the candidacy files, on July 5th, 2000, Fadhilah and Abdullah completed the mayor candidacy requirement and Fahrur Razi and A. Said Hidayat for the vice-mayor candidacy. From the evaluation of the files submitted, Abdullah considered as fail, because the fake of his high school diploma. Meanwhile, Fahrur Rozi, Fadhilah and Said Hidayat passed the selection. The failure of Abdullah to pass the selection knocked down PKB. PKB political announcer said that the failure of Abdullah to pass the selection due to the political conspiracies (Radar Madura, 5 Juli 2000). This emergency situation ultimately PKB promoted Sanusi Djamaludin as candidate of vice mayor.
In the middle of the election unexpectedly the chair of military/police fraction, Lieutenant Colonel M.A. Mukiban was recalled by the military territory commander V (Pangdam) Brawijaya and replaced by Mayor Infantry Soedjono. Unfortunately, the decision was negatively responded by the chair and some members of local parliament in Sampang. They considered this plan was political and endanger local political stability. Mukiban knew the information on Saturday, July 1st, 2000. Meanwhile, the substitute official had met the chair of local parliament (DPRD), Sampang on June 30th, 2000. In this situation, military district commander 028 Sampang, Lieutenant Infantry Royani convinced that military would not involve in the political issue any more (Radar Madura, 3 Juli 2000). Mukiban said that personally he did not receive the letter and did not know why. Commonly, there is no rotation in the middle of the term, except for the one had the retirement or did something wrong. He was going to be retired on June 21st, 2002 later (Radar Madura, 4 Juli 2000). Because the recall of Mukiban considered political, hence, the chair of parliament Sampang did not proceed the Pangdam V Brawijaya request. Toward the final candidacy, some fractions withdrew their candidates. At the same time PKB withdrew Abdullah candidacy and replaced it with Sanusi Djamaludin. The election committee announced that the candidates for mayor and the vice-mayor in Sampang for the term of 2000-2005 would be as follows. FKB promoted the couple of Sanusi Djamaludin and Fahrur Razi Farouq, whereas military/police fraction as well as FG promoted Fadhilah Budiono and A. Said Hidayat (Radar Madura, 15 Juli 2000).
The support of military/police fraction to the couple of Fadhilah - A. Said Hidayat was not met with its main office commander, Kodam V Brawijaya. There fore it was reacted by three of the members. Soedjari, one of the military/police fraction member said that establishment of Budiono was not necessarily followed by all of the members. In the era of reformation, every member of military/police fraction had his own right to vote. The three members said that Budiono failed to build Sampang, where as figure of Sanusi considered had no personal integrity better than Fadhilah did.
The meeting of local parliament of Sampang to elect Mayor and vice mayor of Sampang for the term of 2000-2005 executed on Saturday, July 22nd, 2000. The results of the votes showed the couple of Fadhilah Budiono and Said Hidayat received 23 points, where as the couple of Sanusi and Fathur received 22 points. The results was formally stamped and signed by the committee members including the member from FKB. Fahrur Rozi from PKB said that the election was fair process, honest, and democratic.
The political power that split were FPDI-P Fraction and military/police fractions. This was initially predicted, especially for FPDI-P. In the withdrawal of H. Ruslan Efendi as vice mayor candidacy was not followed by his replacement by the party ignited the members of fraction did coalition with other fractions. They were F-Gab or FKB. This was caused by the unavailability of party leaders that nominated as mayor and vice mayor candidates. The freedom to vote implemented due to no political attachment, since there were no political leader to be promoted as mayor and vice mayor candidates (Radar Madura, 5 Juli 2000). The split of votes phenomena from military/police fraction might be the first time occurred in the election of mayor in Indonesia. It was caused fundamentally by two factors. First, there was no instruction or guidance from military territory commander (Pangdam) V Brawijaya or military district commander as the up line institution for military/police to vote candidate of mayor of Sampang, after Abdullah failed to pass the candidacy promoted by Kodam V Brawijaya. Second, there is a doctrine about reposition and the neutrality of military in the national political issue. Because of its political neutrality, military/police fraction was involved in the competition other political powers. The split of the votes worsens the relation between the chair of military/police fraction and military territory commander (Pangdam) V Brawijaya.
Fadhilah Budiono and A. Said Hidayat inaugurated as mayor and vice-mayor for the term of 2000-2005. At the same time, the chair of the local parliament in Sampang wrote a letter to ministry of home affair and governor of East Java with the letter number 131/1871442.040/2000, dated July 22nd, 2000 about the legality of mayor and vice mayor for the term of 2000-2005.