Desember 08, 2008

DEMOCRATIZATION PROCESS AND COMMUNAL CONFLICT IN MADURA (3 0f 3)

This paper is presented in Workshop on “Peace Education and Conflict Communal in Indonesia” at Asian Institute of Management Conference Center Manila, Philippines, August 27-29 2003. It is based on Research Report “Proses Demokratisasi in Indonesia, Kasus Pemilihan Bupati Sampang, Madura Periode 2000-2005” (2001) sponsored by USAID Jakarta.



(3 of 3)


DEMOCRATIZATION PROCESS AND COMMUNAL CONFLICT IN MADURA

The Case of Election of Mayor (Bupati) in Sampang, Madura
For the Term of 2000-2005


Dr. A. Latief Wiyata
Trunojoyo University, Bangkalan - Madura
University of Jember, Jember - East Java




Before the order was performed, governor received another letter from Ministry of home affair and President that contain the delay of the inauguration. Actually President urged the legal law of Fadhilah Budiono should be executed as the FKB claim. Governor received the letter from President on Tuesday, March 20th, 2001. It seemed that governor rather to follow President, especially considering the field condition (Jawa Pos, 21 Maret 2001). Hence, earlier governor had said that he was going to inaugurate Fadhilah Budiono if the radiogram from ministry of home affair No. 131.35/138A/PUMDA, dated September 6th, 2000 cancelled (Jawa Pos, 25 Januari 2001). The problems of East Java governor to solve the case of election of mayor in Sampang were caused by invincible hands from Jakarta. It seemed that they wanted to promote their people to be a mayor in Sampang (Jawa Pos 22 Februari 2001). These facts confused some of the people in Sampang.

The chaos of the election of mayor and vice-mayor in Sampang left a big impact that influenced the work performance of the parliament and the local government. Half of the local parliament members who support Fadhilah stated vacuum as for the member of the local parliament until the mayor and vice mayor was inaugurated. The village leaders boycotted to pay their housing and land tax. They also gave a waiver for retribution for the merchandiser in the market and terminals. The community aspiration would well accommodated to the parliament. The process of promotion for government employees and local government employees was slow due to the need of to be signed by the definitive mayor. The government monitoring was weak, that caused the leak of the local government budget. The plan of local yearly budget of 20021 and local autonomy regulations had not been done. Therefore, this weakens the running of local government and local development.

Community complained the condition above. Due to the vacuum of parliament performance, military/police fraction members were split into two groups, the supporters and the opponents with their own reasons. The arguing of the local parliaments members who supports their mayor and vice-mayor candidacy getting worse. To solve problem in the military/police fraction, therefore the military territory commander (Pangdam) V Brawijaya for third times asked the chair of local parliament (DPRD) to return the chair of military/police fraction, Lieutenant colonel MA Mukiban, to Pangdam V Brawijaya. The chair of DPRD, Hasan Asyari initially opposed the request of Pangdam. After nine months of confusion, finally the withdrawal of MA M


The aggressiveness of Pangdam and the slow action of DPRD Sampang to precede the request, showed the internal political interests from both sides. From the field, the act of Pangdam was driven by three factors. First, the external tensions from scholars and PKB to ask Pangdam did something to the chair of military/police fraction, MA Mukiban, due to action in the election. Second, It was about “safety first” for Pangdam that leaned to PKB as the compensation of its bad relationship with Gus Dur (The President). Third, Pangdam showed its solidarity, due to the split of its power currently. It was indicated that there was military involvement in case of the mayor election in Sampang.

Further more, in the process of local politics and the mass mobilizations of parties; the role of businessmen as the elite of economic power was strong. The both sides that arguing was supported by group of businessmen. They had strong interest in the election of mayor in Sampang, since the mayor would have the power of distributing projects of local developments and other economical interest from the local resources, such natural gas in Sampang. A few of them had a good relationship with elite military/police leaders in Sampang and Surabaya. One politician said that the effort to get the mayor position in Sampang was connected with the future interest of those big projects.


4. Conclusion

From the discussion above, it can be concluded that the chaos of election of mayor in Sampang driven from the frustration of PKB in election of mayor in Sampang. This frustration lead to the cancellation of the results of the election of mayor and vice-mayor in Sampang that considered by PKB as unlawful. In general, the refusal of the results of the election was since beginning PKB had its own agenda that opposed to support Fadhilah Budiono candidacy for the second term.

The case of Sampang showed the immature of the elite civil leaders to accommodate the different ideas and political interest to lead the process of democratization. In other word, this case showed the failure of the civil political powers consolidation in the process of transformation toward democracy. This was caused by the immature of internal condition of elite civil political leaders who were experienced political domination in the era of new order in every sector of every day life. This internal condition was linked to the personal performance, behavior, political culture of the politicians, and civil society. Thus, the case of the election in Sampang was strongly caused by the conflict of interest of the elite politicians, not the political mass conflicts. If this situation would continue without significant changing, in the future the military power would still be strong and solid institutions and political power that going to the winner in every political competition.

In the process of the election of mayor in Sampang, and the promotion of candidate from military/police fraction, it showed the strong dependency of civil politician to the military and police institutionally and personally. Especially for PKB that since beginning, it promoted lieutenant colonel Abdullah as its own candidate of mayor. Hence, some of its political leaders opposed the candidacy from military/police fraction. On the other hand, military had the same interest. This institution interest drove in the chaos of the election of mayor in Sampang. The military observation appeared since the process of candidacy. The withdrawal of the chair of military/police fraction, and the political tensions after the election. Those interests should be viewed in the context of institutional, and personal. This dependency of elite civil politicians showed the capability of military/police strongly controlled the action of civil elite politicians. The imbalance of political power would be continuing if the civil personal performance would not change significantly.

Both military and Golkar and bureaucrats played significant role in the case of the election of mayor in Sampang. Those three institutions were able to control and completely held the local and social powers and the local politicians. The control would not be viewed by the political powers and its politician, as the systematic steps to hold the process of democratization in the community that just growing. Social and political conflict that appear cannot be viewed substantively, and only could be viewed as conflict between the group of supporters, and the group of opponents, the mayor/ vice mayor elected. Specifically, this case would reduce as the conflict between PKB and PPP in relation of their merely political interests.

Social and political conflicts did viewed as the conflict of social interest in the process of democratization (democratic power) , and the status quo (the anti democracy). Thus, the case of Sampang was the small picture of the limitation of civil, in social and political powers that born in the era of reformation to get the strategic interest in the future to build and stabilize democracy to develop civil society that ultimately reached the civil supremacy toward military.

The use mass power or mass movement in social actions to push political tensions in their political fight showed their incapability of civil elite politicians to run democracy institutions. It also showed the level of their understanding of democracy values. Each side of the components promoted its interest rather than to find a rational solution of the case of the election of mayor in Sampang. Further more, based on the concept of ashamed (malo) that culturally able to downgrading the political group.

All of the components should solve the problem with more rationally and not to use community as political movement. This case can be use as reference as solving problem for the beneficial of community. Most importantly, in the case of the election of mayor in Sampang is the political maturity in the level of elite. Hence, the process of democratization in the community of Sampang as the mandate of reformation can be implemented properly.




REFERENCES


De Jonge, Huub., 1995. “Stereotypes of the Madurese”, dalam Van Dijk, K. De Jonge, Huub. dan Touwen-Bouwsma, E. (eds.). Accross Madura Strait: The Dynamics of an Insular Society. Leiden: KITLV Press.
Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat Daerah Sampang. 2000. Pertanggung jawaban Bupati Sampang Masa Bhakti 1995-2000 kepada DPRD Kabupaten Sampang. Sampang.
Lembaga Bantuan Hukum (LBH) Surabaya dan Direktorat Operasional YLBHI, 1995, Insiden Nipah, LBH dan YLBHI Surabaya.
Stepan, Alfred, 1988, Rethinking Military Politics: Brazil and Southern Cone. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Wiyata, A. Latief, 1997. “Mengapa Rusuh Madura?” Artikel dalam majalah Forum Keadilan, Jakarta.
------- 1999. “Emosi Ekstrim Orang Madura”. Artikel dalam majalah Gatra Nomor 20/V, 3 April, Jakarta.
------- 2000. “Memahami Madura: Pelajaran dari Kasus Sampang”. Kompas. 20 November, Jakarta.
------- 2002. Carok: Konflik Kekerasan dan Harga Diri Orang Madura. Yogyakarta: LkiS.


Newspapers and magazines:
Jawa Pos, edisi Mei 2000 s/d. Maret 2001
Kompas, edisi September-Desember 2000, Februari-Maret 2001.
Radar Madura, edisi: Mei 2000 s/d. Maret 2001.
Forum Keadilan, edisi 1977.
Gatra, Nomor 20/V, 3 April 1999 edisi 1999.




Tidak ada komentar:

Poskan Komentar